Non–commercial funders (e.g. charities, Research Councils, Government departments/agencies) provide grants for projects, programmes, fellowships etc. through either Responsive Mode Programmes (applications accepted at any time) or Direct Mode/Managed Programmes (targeted ‘calls for proposals’ in specific areas within set deadlines). 资助机会 are made available on funder or associated member organisations’ websites.
资助机会 by commercial funders are more likely to be developed from established academic/commercial networks or may result from an institutional/commercial framework. Commercial agreements (contracts) are usually considered to be either academically or commercially led.